Heritage, M. (2010). Formative assessment and next-generation assessment systems: Are we losing an opportunity? Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).
Heritage discusses the Race to the Top Assessment Program applications for next-generation assessment systems from the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) and the Partnership for Assessment of readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). The author highlights each consortium’s narrow treatment of formative assessment and maintains that this lack of attention is a missed opportunity to formally incorporate and develop key teacher and student practices that foster teaching and learning in the classroom. Heritage describes effective formative assessment, reviews key studies, and describes how formative assessment is currently used in U.S. education. The author examines the theoretical and research base for formative assessment exploring topics such as teacher feedback and socio-cultural theories of learning, and presents recent definitions of formative assessment and implementation recommendations from international policy groups. Overall, Heritage maintains that formative assessment is a process to support and guide teaching and learning, and that educators must fully understand the nature of formative assessment and its role in supporting teaching and learning to experience its benefits to education.
Balanced Assessment System, Culture of Inquiry, Formative Assessment, Policies, Priorities, Professional Expertise