Brookhart, S. M. (2007). Expanding views about formative classroom assessment: A review of the literature. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative classroom assessment: Research, theory and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on formative assessment. Brookhart begins by describing the evolution of formative assessment, highlighting expanding concepts in the definition over time. After briefly exploring the relationship between formative and summative assessment and discussing previous literature reviews, she presents the current review which includes 70 empirical studies and 20 reviews of formative and general classroom assessment. She describes research findings related to conventional assessment practices, teacher beliefs about assessment, the assessment environment, effective formative assessment and feedback, and negative effects of poor assessment practices. Brookhart also presents studies examining student motivation in relation to classroom assessment, students’ roles in classroom assessment, validity and reliability of assessment information, and effects of formative classroom assessment on student achievement. Overall, she concludes that when practices are done well and strategies used appropriately, formative assessment has the potential to help improve student learning outcomes.
Formative Assessment, Multiple Measures