Wiliam, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37, 3-14.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate assessment for learning or formative assessment. First, Wiliam discusses the origins of assessment for learning and reviews the research literature on assessment and classroom learning, focusing specifically on meta-analyses and large reviews. Next, the author provides numerous definitions of formative assessment and assessment for learning and then highlights the necessary conditions for assessment to support learning in the classroom (e.g., learner is engaged in action to improve learning). Wiliam concludes that although more research is needed, a significant body of literature has shown that assessment for learning has the potential to increase student engagement and improve student learning.
Formative Assessment, Professional Expertise