Knapp, M. S., Swinnerton, J. A., Copland, M. A., & Monpas-Huber, J. (2006). Data-informed leadership in education. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.
Knapp and colleagues synthesize research findings and descriptions of effective practices regarding data use in education. The authors discuss data-based decision making in education and describe data-informed leadership including data literacy, data accessibility, data sources, culture of data use, cycles of inquiry, and needed policy to support effective data use. Knapp and colleagues also describe common practices and emerging strategies in states, districts, and schools highlighting anchors for data informed leadership, cultures and cycles of inquiry, and conditions in the policy environment. The authors conclude by presenting unanswered questions, enduring dilemmas (e.g., need for immediate feedback s. longer term documentation of performance), and challenges/barriers to data-based decision making in schools.
Decision Making, Infrastructure, Multi-level Data Use