Brookhart, S. (2009). Assessment and examinations. In L.J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin, (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers and teaching (pp. 723-738). New York: Springer.
Brookhart discusses classroom assessment focusing on how teachers determine student mastery of learning and the role of standardized testing in schools. In the chapter the author provides a broad overview of each topic. Specifically, Brookhart addresses the use and quality of assessment information, the classroom assessment environment, and assessment for grading. The author also discusses various types of assessments including (but not limited to) observation, paper and pencil tests, performance assessment, oral assessment, portfolios, and formative assessment. In the section on standardized testing, Brookhart highlights the role of external accountability testing and examination systems in the United States and abroad. This section also includes a general discussion of accountability tests and tests to make international comparisons among students. Brookhart concludes with a discussion of the importance of good classroom assessment and a balance between formative and summative assessments.
Balanced Assessment System, Policies