Stiggins, R., & Chappuis, J. (2006). What a difference a word makes: Assessment FOR learning rather than assessment OF learning helps students succeed. Journal of Staff Development, 27(1), 10-14.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss assessment for learning. Stiggins and Chappuis note that assessment for learning leads to dramatic improvements in student achievement, yet teacher education programs rarely include this kind of assessment training. The authors describe five keys to classroom assessment quality including clear purposes, clear targets, sound design, effective communication, and student involvement, and they provide effective resources in assessment for learning. Stiggins and Chappuis argue that many off-the-shelf assessment programs labeled “formative” do not actually help teachers apply the strategies proven to be effective to their classroom practice and cannot replace the professional development needed to improve teachers’ assessment practices.