Chin, C. (2006). Classroom interaction in science: Teacher questioning and feedback to students’ responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315-1346.
The purpose of this study was to explore teacher questioning and feedback during science instruction and to develop a framework to represent student-teacher interactions in science class. The researchers observed science classroom interactions between teachers and 12-13 year old students in Singapore. The researchers identified four different types of teacher feedback: (1) affirm the student’s answer, reinforce it, and the move on to further direct instruction; (2) accept the answer and then ask another related question to extend conceptual thought; (3) correct the student’s response and then expand on the ideas; and (4) make neutral comments followed by restating the question or asking another question. The authors include examples of teacher-student interactions to illustrate these concepts. The authors conclude that questioning and feedback are significant parts of science instruction and findings can be used to demonstrate effective discourse in science teaching and learning.
Culture of Inquiry, Formative Assessment