Heritage, M., Kim, J., Vendlinski, T., & Herman, J. (2009). From evidence to action: A seamless process in formative assessment? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 28(3), 24-31.
Researchers at the National Center for Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing at UCLA conducted a generalizability study of measures of teacher knowledge for teaching mathematics. More specifically, teachers were asked to use assessment information to assess student learning and then decide what steps to take next to further instruction. The researchers found that while teachers were able to determine student performance levels from assessment data, they had difficulty determining how to modify instruction in response to evidence of student learning. Heritage and colleagues argue that educators must develop an understanding of how learning progresses in a domain so that they know what to do next given a student’s current learning level. The authors also maintain that teachers must have a deep understanding of the actual domain so that they know what is (and is not) “good performance” in that subject area. The authors conclude that in order to move from evidence to action, teachers must have a better understanding of how learning develops and deeper knowledge of the content domain.
Expectations for Data Use, Professional Expertise