Sadler, D.R. (1998). Formative assessment: Revisiting the territory. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 77-84.
In this article, the author comments on a formative assessment review article by Black and Wiliam (1998), highlighting certain points with particular attention to issues regarding quality feedback. The author argues that students must be taught how to understand feedback and how to use suggestions to improve their work. The author also mentions the inequality between student and teacher and how the nature of that relationship should be recognized to help understand how to communicate effective feedback. A description of the three elements that make up feedback (i.e., attention to the learner's production, appraisal against a reference framework to identify strengths and weakness, and an explicit response) is provided as well as the six resources used by competent teachers to carry out this evaluation. These resources include superior content knowledge, dispositions towards the activity and learners, skills to construct tests and devise tasks, knowledge of criteria and standards, evaluative expertise, and experience determining effective feedback. The author concludes that quality of feedback includes both the accuracy/ appropriateness of the teacher's response and effectiveness of communication to the learner, and that exploring the quality of feedback should be a key focus of future research.