Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. Retrieved May 15, 2008 from http://rer.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/77/1/81
The purpose of this article is to examine how feedback influences learning and achievement. The authors begin by explaining the meaning of feedback and then discuss the effectiveness of feedback by reviewing numerous studies of various kinds of feedback provided in classrooms. They find much variability in the effect sizes of the studies reviewed and conclude that feedback is most effective when students receive specific information about a task and how to complete it effectively, while praise, rewards, and punishment are least effective. Next, the authors present a model of feedback, including both the purpose of feedback and strategies used by teachers and students to reduce the discrepancy between what is known and what needs to be learned. They maintain that effective feedback answers three questions: Where am I going? (i.e., goals); How am I going? (i.e., progress); and Where to next? (i.e., next steps to further learning). They also argue that each feedback question works at four levels (i.e., task level, process level, self-regulation level, and self level). The authors then use their model to address issues regarding feedback (e.g., timing, the role of assessment, etc.). The authors conclude that feedback can effectively enhance learning, though it occurs too rarely in actual classrooms, and must be researched more fully through both qualitative and quantitative methods to better understand how feedback works in the classroom setting.
Multiple Measures, Skills and Knowledge