Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 9-21.
In this follow-up to their "Inside the Black-Box," the authors report on their efforts to gather evidence about how to improve classroom formative assessment. In order to carry out this work, the authors conducted a study of the implementation of formative assessment concepts in practice with 24 secondary school mathematics and science teachers in England. Through the use of improved questioning techniques, feedback focusing on how to improve rather than grading, involving students in peer-assessment and self-assessment, and using summative assessments in a formative way, teachers found that the motivation and attitudes of their students improved, and the students achieved higher scores on tests than their peers in the same schools. Changes brought about by improved assessment for learning also prompted teachers to increase their knowledge and use of learning theory and to develop assessment strategies appropriate for their subject matter. The authors conclude with suggestions for teachers to enhance student learning, including, rethinking lesson planning and redefining their roles and expectations.
Culture of Inquiry, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, Professional Expertise