Johnstone, C.J., Altman, J., & Thurlow, M. (2006). A state guide to the development of universally designed assessments. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes.
This guide provides strategies to support states in designing and examining educational assessments to ensure accessibility for all users. The goal of the universal design approach to educational assessment is to create tests that accurately measure the skills and knowledge of a wide range of students, including those with disabilities and English language learners. Elements of universal design include precise constructs; clear and readable text, format, instructions, and visuals; respect for and inclusion of diverse test populations; and a test format that can be updated and/or changed without major consequences to measures. The authors contend that universal design considerations should be made from the beginning of test design through the entire assessment process.
Professional Expertise, Quality of Assessment Data