What is Formative Assessment?
"An assessment activity can help learning if it provides information to be used as feedback by teachers and by their pupils in assessing themselves and each other to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. Such assessment becomes 'formative assessment' when the evidence is actually used to adapt teaching work to meet learning needs" (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall & Wiliam, 2003:2).
"The process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning during the learning" (Bell & Cowie, 2000: 536).
"Formative assessment is defined as assessment carried out during the instructional process for the purpose of improving teaching or learning" (Shepard, Hammerness, Darling-Hammond & Rust, 2005:275).
"Formative assessment is concerned with how judgments about the quality of student responses (performances, pieces, or works) can be used to shape and improve the student's competence by short-circuiting the randomness and inefficiency of trial and error learning" (Sadler, 1989:120).